Rudi Volti is emeritus professor of sociology at Pitzer College and a founding only to the state and the market as sources of technological innovation, but also to the Segal examines the historical connection between technology and utopia. What is the relationship between work practices and social change? What is studies" often replaces "sociology of science or technology" or "history of In the United States, most sociology of science before the late s was dominated by . What is the difference between political sociology and political science? sociology has it's main rules in politics and philosophy of history. In the united states,the sense of being an American, which encompasses belonging to a unique .. Charles Partrick, former Senior Partner at Syndicated Technologies ( ).
He has published extensively on the nineteenth and early twentieth century social and political history of the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire, and was guest editor of a special issue of Nationalities Papers on Muslim minorities in the Balkans vol. His most recent publications focus on the societal ramifications of the transfer of railroad technology into the Ottoman Empire. Segal Segal examines the historical connection between technology and utopia, and shows how this connection is not just a contemporary western concept, but one that stretches back several centuries to Thomas More and also extends to several non-Western societies, including China and India.
This booklet also examines various expressions of utopia: Hardly an uncritical defender of utopia in any form, Segal nevertheless contends that utopia still serves positive purposes. Segal is Professor of History at the University of Maine, where he has taught since From to he was Bird Term Professor of History. He has been director of the Technology and Society Project since Segal received his M. His books include Technological Utopianism in American Culture ; 2d ed.
A Brief History ; 2d ed. He is a regular reviewer of books about technology for Nature. Byzantium, Islam, and the West, by Pamela O. Long This page booklet provides an introduction to technology, society, and culture between the years and The first three chapters present an overview of Byzantium, Islam, and the west, addressing such topics agriculture, craft industries, and building construction. Chapters four, five and six are topical, treating interrelationships among the three areas involving warfare and military technology; transportation, travel, and commerce; and the technologies of communication.
A concluding chapter addresses the value of cross-cultural comparisons and interdisciplinary perspectives, and the booklet concludes with notes and a bibliographic essay.
There are 53 illustrations. Her book, Openness, Secrecy, Authorship: Forkosch Prize by the Journal of the History of Ideas. Post This booklet provides a concise history of transport and travel from the 15th century to the 21st, showing how change and innovation have been contingent on ambient social and cultural currents, and quite often on the outcome of contests over political power.
It also illuminates a paradox: Canals and railways were constructed with only vague hopes that they could ever be profitable; autos and airplanes were invented with no clear sense of how people would construct their social reality. The analysis concludes with a suggestion that the absence of any inevitable link with rational motivation is what makes the history of technology such an instructive discipline. This page booklet includes 30 illustrations, annotated endnotes, and a page bibliography.
Post is former curator of transportation at the Smithsonian Institution. He was editor of Technology and Culture from through and president of the Society for the History of Technology in He is the editor of Every Four Years: The American Presidency rev. History and the History of Technology with Stephen H. The Culture and Technology of Drag Racing rev.
Japan was the first nation outside Europe and North America to industrialize, and many of its achievements have been duplicated by South Korea, Taiwan, and China. In their pursuit of economic modernity, these countries actively sought, modified, and applied technologies that were obtained from abroad. Here is a narrative and analysis of technology transfer to East Asia, taking note of key institutional actors, both private and public, as well as the distinctive historical circumstances that shaped the acquisition and assimilation of foreign technologies.
Rudi Volti is professor of sociology at Pitzer College and a founding member of the Science, Technology, and Society program of the Claremont Colleges.
He also serves on the editorial board of Technology and Culture. His major publications include Technology, Politics, and Society in ChinaSociety and Technological Change first published in and now in its fourth revised editionThe Engineer in Historyand The Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Society X is quite as bad as it is.
We would be much better off if X were done away with, or at least radically transformed. Such viewpoints include the past concept of a correlation between intelligence and the nature of a human's ethnicity or race X may not be at all as it is. The velocipede was widely used in the latter half of the 19th century.
Historical Perspectives on Technology, Culture, and Society: Catalog of Volumes in Series
In the latter half of the 19th century, a social need was first recognized for a more efficient and rapid means of transportation. Consequently, the velocipede was first developed, which was able to reach higher translational velocities than the smaller non-geared bicycles of the day, by replacing the front wheel with a larger radius wheel.
One notable trade-off was a certain decreased stability leading to a greater risk of falling. This trade-off resulted in many riders getting into accidents by losing balance while riding the bicycle or being thrown over the handle bars.
The first "social construction" or progress of the velocipede caused the need for a newer "social construction" to be recognized and developed into a safer bicycle design.
Science and technology studies - Wikipedia
Consequently, the velocipede was then developed into what is now commonly known as the " bicycle " to fit within society's newer "social construction," the newer standards of higher vehicle safety.
Thus the popularity of the modern geared bicycle design came as a response to the first social construction, the original need for greater speed, which had caused the high-wheel bicycle to be designed in the first place. Technoscience Technoscience is a subset of Science, Technology, and Society studies that focuses on the inseparable connection between science and technology. It states that fields are linked and grow together, and scientific knowledge requires an infrastructure of technology in order to remain stationary or move forward.
Both technological development and scientific discovery drive one another towards more advancement. Technoscience excels at shaping human thought and behavior by opening up new possibilities that gradually or quickly come to be perceived as necessities. Discuss June "Technological action is a social process. This includes the aspect that social, political, and economic factors are inherent in technology and that social structure influences what technologies are pursued.
A flaw in the automobile design of the rear gas tank caused a fiery explosion upon impact. The exploding fuel tank killed and injured hundreds of people. The company decided to ignore improving their technology because of profit-driven motives, strict internal control, and competition from foreign competitors such as Volkswagen. Ford Motor Company conducted a cost-benefit analysis to determine if altering the Ford Pinto model was feasible.
An analysis conducted by Ford employees argued against a new design because of increased cost. Employees were also under tight control by the CEO who rushed the Pinto through production lines to increase profits. Ford finally changed after public scrutiny. Safety organizations later influenced this technology by requiring stricter safety standards for motor vehicles.
It was utilized during World War 2 to combat insect-borne human disease that plagued military members and civilian populations. People and companies soon realized other benefits of DDT for agricultural purposes. Rachel Carson became worried of wide spread use on public health and the environment. Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring left an imprint on the industry by claiming linkage of DDT to many serious illness such as cancer. Carson's book drew criticism from chemical companies who felt their reputation and business threatened by such claims.
The main cause for the removal of DDT was the public deciding that any benefits outweighed the potential health risk. Due to reduced error and reaction times flights on average, using autopilot, have been shown to be safer. Thus the technology has a direct impact on people by increasing their safety, and society affects the technology because people want to be safer so they are constantly trying to improve the autopilot systems.
Cell phones  — Cell phone technology emerged in the early s after advancements were made in radio technology. The discovery by Bell Labs revolutionized the capabilities and outcomes of cellular technology.
Technology only improved once mobile phone users could communicate outside of a designated area. First generation mobile phones were first created and sold by Motorola. Their phone was only intended for use in cars. Second generation mobile phone capabilities continued to improve because of the switch to digital.
Phones were faster which enhanced communication capabilities of customers. They were also sleeker and weighed less than bulky first generation technology.
Technologically advances boosted customer satisfaction and broadened cell phone companies customer base. Third generation technology changed the way people interact with other. Now customers had access to wifi, texting and other applications. Mobile phones are now entering into the fourth generations. Cellular and mobile phones revolutionized the way people socialize and communicate in order to establish modern social structure. People have affected the development of this technology by demanding features such as larger screens, touch capabilities, and internet accessibility.
Scientist theorized a network of computers connected to each other. Computing capabilities contributed to developments and the creation of the modern day computer or laptop. The internet has become a normal part of life and business, to such a degree that the United Nations views it as a basic human right.
The internet is becoming larger, one way is that more things are being moved into the digital world due to demand, for example online banking. It has drastically changed the way most people go about daily habits. Deliberative democracy[ edit ] Deliberative democracy is a reform of representative or direct democracies which mandates discussion and debate of popular topics which affect society.
Deliberative Democracy is a tool for making decisions. More recently, the term was coined by Joseph Bessette in his work Deliberative Democracy: The Majority Principle in Republican Government, where he uses the idea in opposition to the elitist interpretations of the United States Constitution with emphasis on public discussion. Deliberative Democracy allows for "a wider range of public knowledge," and it has been argued that this can lead to "more socially intelligent and robust" science.
One major shortcoming of deliberative democracy is that many models insufficiently ensure critical interaction. Rules of equality, civility, and inclusivity may prompt deliberation even when our first impulse is to avoid it. Stories anchor reality by organizing experience and instilling a normative commitment to civic identities and values, and function as a medium for framing discussions.
Leadership provides important cues to individuals in deliberative settings, and can keep groups on a deliberative track when their members slip into routine and habit. Individuals are more likely to sustain deliberative reasoning when they have a stake in the outcomes. Apprenticeship teaches citizens to deliberate well. We might do well to imagine education as a form of apprenticeship learning, in which individuals learn to deliberate by doing it in concert with others more skilled in the activity.
Jasanoff comes to the conclusion that there is no longer a question of if there needs to be increased public participation in making decisions about science and technology, but now there needs to be ways to make a more meaningful conversation between the public and those developing the technology. However, things similar to this have been implemented in small, local, governments like New England towns and villages.
New England town hall meetings are a good example of deliberative democracy in a realistic setting. While the main aim is to reach consensus, a deliberative democracy should encourage the voices of those with opposing viewpoints, concerns due to uncertainties, and questions about assumptions made by other participants.
It should take its time and ensure that those participating understand the topics on which they debate. Independent managers of debates should also have substantial grasp of the concepts discussed, but must "[remain] independent and impartial as to the outcomes of the process. Tragedy of the commons InGarrett Hardin popularised the phrase "tragedy of the commons. Since then, the tragedy of the commons has been used to symbolize the degradation of the environment whenever many individuals use a common resource.
Although Garrett Hardin was not an STS scholar, the concept of tragedy of the commons still applies to science, technology and society.