POPULATION AND FAMILY-LIFE EDUCATION | Makerere University Courses
Family Life Education Source for information on Family Life Education: International Because knowledge about human development, interpersonal relationships, and . Curriculum guidelines were recognized as guidelines only, with the specific including social studies, guidance, and counseling and religious studies. of the environment. Area: Family Life . The student explains how family relationships affect personal up with a class definition of the term “family unit”. 3 . Population and Family Life Education is a means of assisting youth in The English, science, social studies, and agricultural science courses for 5th and 6th Among the accomplishments of the program were: several research studies on .
To identify needs, problems, and gaps in population education for both the in-school and out-of-school sectors. To analyze existing curriculum materials, syllabi, teaching, and learning materials at all levels of education and suggest suitable guidelines for determining appropriate content and modes of introducing population education concepts into the curricula. To create a favourable climate of awareness and knowledge on population education among all sectors of the Nigerian population through a public awareness campaign.
To develop desirable attitudes and behaviours in the teachers and students as well as the community at large towards population issues To develop appropriate curriculum materials for use in the population education programme. To incorporate population education into all teacher-training programmes. The third group of objectives is specifically targeted toward the secondary school level. The National Population Education curriculum for Nigerian secondary schools is meant to help the students to: Recognize how the increasing gap between birth and death rates will impact services such as schools, health, water and housing.
Relate growth and size of family to demand for available food and other facilities, health and productivity of members of the family. Explain how population patterns at the household and national levels affect the demand for and consumption of goods and services.
Recognize how population growth, the constraints on resources development, and consumption rates have contributed to the present state of the economy. Highlight the importance of self-sufficiency in food production and the dangers of dependence on food imports and food aid, and Identify the various uses to which population data are put and, therefore, develop an understanding of the importance of and a sense of responsibility towards population census enumeration and the registration of vital statistics.
The fourth group of objectives focuses on the implementation and role of the population education programme. The ultimate objectives are: To institutionalize population education at all levels and sectors of our educational system.
To assist individual citizens in defining their population problems, in understanding the determinants and consequences of population processes and changes, and in evaluating possible actions which they and their communities can take to improve their quality of life.
To complement other population programmes aimed at improving the quality of life of the individual, the family and the nation. Objectives of Family Life Education Family Life Education will enable people to understand the importance of the family as the basic bio-social group in society.
It helps to know and explain different types of marriages, family structure and life cycle of the family. To understand the matters relating to sexual relationship, fertility regulation, family planning, before marriage, and child-bearing age.
To grasp the comparative benefits of smaller family sizes and its effect on quality of life both for the individuals involved, the extended family, and the nation as a whole. To publicize governmental population and family policies. Family size and welfare: Women who delay their marriage will have shorter reproductive spans and therefore, will tend to have fewer children than women who marry earlier.
Likewise, young people who delay marriage will tend to have smaller families, be able to pursue education for self-fulfillment and gainful employment, and be able to help improve the welfare of parents, brothers and sisters.
Having fewer and more spaced-out births promotes the health of the mother and child and affords women more opportunities for sharing social and economic responsibilities. Population change and resource development: This also includes the effects of enhanced status of women on population growth and development. Population-related beliefs and values: Based on these core messages, it can be observed that population education is a broad subject, which derives from many fields of learning.
Notes on Population and Family Life Education
Subsequently, the ultimate content and scope of population education will depend on the target group. Thirty years later, it was million. To track such dramatic changes in population, a census programme needs to be put into place that can collect data on on the country's population size, distribution, growth rate, and composition.
Population census is a means of collecting and publishing the demographic, social, and economic data of all the persons in a country at a particular time.
It inventories the age, sex, occupational status, religious affiliation, marital status and educational status of all the country's citizens.
There are two major types of census: A De jure census counts people at their usual place of residence, while a de facto census counts people wherever they are found on the census day.
Each person is counted on sight, and, for valid results, travel is always restricted during the census exercises. The census is used to plan for the educational needs, health, housing, employment, industrial, and other needs of people of the country. However, the following have been militating against successful census in Nigeria: Inadequate statisticians and demographers to process the census data.
Lack of up-to-date base maps, especially when new Local Government areas and states are created. Politicization of census operations, leading to inflation of figures and falsification of information. Religious beliefs like women in purdah in the North and the negative attitudes of many Jehovah's witnesses in the South.
Poor communication and transportation systems, which prevent census officers from reaching many parts of the country.
Inadequate offices and storage facilities to keep census data and records. Inaccessibility of some parts of the country during certain period of the year like Oro festival in Ikorodu. Poor publicity of census programmes. Late processing of census data. The use of census figures as an instrument of political power. Vital Registration is another way of obtaining data on population size, composition, and structures and can substitute for census programmes.
The teaching of population and family life education.
Vital registration refers to the process of keeping accurate records of events in the life of an individual right from birth to death. It is also used for tax deduction purposes, and for many administrative purposes essential for national development. Other sources of population data are sample surveys, population registers, and other non-traditional sources. Two divisions identified by social educators are: Ecumene meaning inhabited areas of the world and, Non-Ecumene meaning uninhabited or sparsely inhabited areas.
Factors influencing Population Distribution in Nigeria and Africa A number of factors are responsible for the uneven distribution of population in Nigeria and Africa. Factors which influence population distribution can be grouped as physical, historical, political and economic. Although other factors contribute to it, the ultimate factor in population distribution is economic potential, because people live only where they can find a means of earning a living.
The prevalence of very poor soil conditions have made some areas such as the access plains, the swampy Niger Delta, and the sterile sand and beach ridges of the Nigerian coast inhospitable for settlements. People tend to move away from places with a high prevalence of disease.
Examples abound around Jos. Historical developments reduced population in certain parts of the world. Between 10 and 15 million Africans were carried away as slaves to Europe and America during the 18th and 19th centuries.
In the 19th century, inter-tribal wars in Yorubaland led to the death of many people. Somalia, Liberia, and Sierra Leone are now being depleted of population because of wars. Another factor is historical attachment among the Ibos and some people to the area in the Plateau State. Political Factors influencing Population Distribution in Nigeria and Africa Some political policies and decisions which influenced the distribution of population include: Forest and game reserves: The creation of forest and game reserves, where settlement and farming are illegal, has led to situations where a vast uninhabited area exists side by side with densely populated areas where the people experience acute shortage of farmlands.
The resettlement of people displaced by such large manmade lakes as the Kariba Lake and Lake Kainji have had considerable effect on the people. Also, settlement integration schemes for health or security reasons in Nigeria have had considerable effect on the distribution or redistribution of population in the country. Economic Factors influencing Population Distribution in Nigeria and Africa Economic factors have become important in shaping population distribution in most parts of the world.
This is a reflection of technological progress. In addition to urban centres, Africa's major areas of high population density are those rural locales that produce minerals or industrial crops for exports. Inthe Japanese Ministry of Education mandated education for both boys and girls to help prepare them for their family roles and responsibilities, and this education, offered through Home Economics departments, continues to be mandated for grades five and six.
The curriculum revision implemented in emphasized learning knowledge, gaining skills, increasing interest in daily family life, and improving family life as a family member Ministry of Education Textbooks approved by the Ministry of Education typically focus on normative family needs and ideal family life, and thus may not reflect the reality of the daily lives of some students. Curriculum guidelines were recognized as guidelines only, with the specific content to be taught subject to local school interpretation and teacher modification.
Educational reforms in schools in Jamaica in the s Hodelin incorporated education for family betterment and the promotion of family health into several subject areas in the core curriculum for grades seven through nine, including social studies, guidance, and counseling and religious studies. This family education is now required for all students, both males and females, entering secondary schools in Jamaica.
Sexuality education is a controversial area in family life education, especially at the elementary or primary level, with many adults believing that sexuality education is a family rather than a school responsibility.
A survey of U. One area of sexuality education that does receive attention in elementary or primary schools is that of child sexual abuse. Concerns about sexual abuse have resulted in the development of sexual-abuse prevention programs for young children that teach concepts of personal safety such as good and bad touch, saying no, and telling someone you trust about the abuse.
Some evidence indicates that sexual-abuse education increases knowledge, but acquiring knowledge per se may not prevent abuse or change behaviors Engel, Saracino, and Bergen There is no evidence that these programs increase children's fears or damage their relationships with parents or other significant adults, but in the absence of positive sexuality education, it is of concern that children may learn only negative messages about sexuality.
Family Life Education During Adolescence Family life education for adolescents addresses two important kinds of needs: Important family life content includes understanding one's self and others; building self-esteem; making choices about sexuality; forming, maintaining, and ending relationships; taking responsibility for one's actions; understanding family roles and responsibilities; and improving communication skills Hennon and Arcus Programs differ in the emphasis placed on this content, with some focusing on personal development themes and others giving greater attention to marriage and family relationships.
The assumption underlying anticipatory family education is that if adolescents are prepared for their potential future family roles, then their adult life experiences in these roles will be more successful Hennon and Arcus As most adolescents have not yet selected a marital partner, anticipatory education for marriage emphasizes acquiring knowledge about marriage and intimate relationships, improving relationship skills, and exploring personal attitudes and values regarding marriage, marital expectations, and marital roles Stahmann and Salts Anticipatory education for parenthood helps adolescents acquire knowledge about child development and different patterns of child rearing and sometimes includes the study and observation of children Brock, Oertwein, and Coufal These programs are most successful when they also include the precursors of successful parenting—self-understanding and the development of interpersonal relationship skills de Lissovoy In the United States and Canada, most family life education programs for adolescents are found in schools, although some may also be offered through youth organizations, community agencies, and churches.
Programs vary considerably in their content and approach, in whether they are required or elective, and in which department they may be offered typically Home Economics, Guidance and Counseling, Social Studies, or Health.
Information about program effectiveness is limited but suggests that programs may be successful in helping students acquire knowledge and skills but have little impact on attitudes and values Hennon and Arcus Many programs are hampered by the lack of time allocated to them, the lack of educational resources, and limitations in preparing family life teachers.
In Japan, family life goals at the upper-secondary level include understanding human development and daily life, understanding the meaning of families, family and community connections, learning knowledge and skills for daily life, and creating family and community life cooperatively between men and women Ministry of Education This content, taught in the Home Economics department, has been mandated for girls since and for both girls and boys since Secondary school subjects called Life Environment Studies and Morals may also teach content related to human development, interpersonal relationships, family interaction, ethics, and family and society.
Human relations topics in Australian secondary schools may either be integrated into established subject areas typically Health Education, Social Studies, or Home Economics or presented as an independent subject such as Personal Development, Life Skills, or Human Relations Wolcott Curriculum guidelines vary among the states and territories, and because these guidelines are "suggestive," some family life topics may receive little if any attention.
Beginning incitizenship, which includes respecting individual differences and the development of good relationships, will become a statutory subject taught in all state schools in the United Kingdom Blunkett For the first time, relationship skills and different kinds of relationships, such as marriage and parenthood, will be taught to all students from age eleven on.
Although citizenship is a statutory subject, each individual school will determine how the content is to be taught and by whom. This curricular development is being supported by other U.
NERDC: implementing population family life education.
In Jamaica, education for family in secondary schools has typically been offered by Home Economics Hodelin A reconceptualization of the Home Economics Curriculum in the s emphasized the betterment of family life and provides a Caribbean-relevant curriculum relevant for both male and female secondary students.
A comparative study of family life education, sex education, and human sexuality conducted by UNESCO identified the need to broaden traditional population education to include topics such as reproductive health, the status and empowerment of women, intergenerational relationships, and problem-solving skills in order to improve family and social welfare Blanchard In the United States and Canada, most schools provide some form of sexuality education for adolescents, although many curricular guides are out-of-date and programs are not comprehensive, omitting topics such as communication and decision making, personal values and responsibility, and reducing risk-taking behaviors Engel, Saracino, and Bergen Despite many differences in these programs, educators promote a broad rather than narrow approach to sexuality education, although implementation may be difficult because of resistance from parents and from political and religious leaders.
Family Life Education for Adults Two characteristics distinguish family life education for adults from that for children and adolescents: The earliest family life education for adults was parent education, provided for mothers who met in groups specifically organized to improve parent understanding and parenting practices Lewis-Rowley et al. Fathers are increasingly involved, but most parent education is still provided to mothers. Important outcomes of parent education include more positive child behaviors, more positive perceptions of child behaviors, and improved parent-child interactions Brock, Oertwein, and Coufal Early generic programs have been adapted to specific target groups, including parents with different backgrounds, different parenting needs, and children of different ages.
Despite the diversity of programs available, research indicates that no one parent education program is more effective than the others Medway Concern for the potential negative impact of divorce on children has led to the development of special parenting education for divorcing parents Geasler and Blaisure First documented inthese programs have proliferated since then and are now mandated in some U.
Most are relatively short-term single, two-hour sessionsand are designed to help parents understand and moderate the effects of divorce on children and to improve their coparenting skills. There has been little systematic evaluation of these programs McKenry, Clark, and Stonebut exit questionnaires suggest that participant satisfaction is high Geasler and Blaisure ParentLink, an innovative coalition of agencies and organizations in Missouri U.
In addition to a library loan service and community resource lists, ParentLink provides assistance through a toll-free 1— number, development of an Internet site, review and evaluation of other websites, a monthly electronic newsletter, and access to consultants both face-to-face and through listservs. Marriage education has been a focus of family life education for adults since the earliest programs were developed in the s and s in the United States and Great Britain Stahmann and Salts ; Mace and Mace Premarital programs appear effective in meeting at least some of their goals, but they may not be equally effective for all participants Fowers, Montel, and Olson ; Gottman et al.
Little is known about the long-term effects of these programs. Originally, marriage preparation was provided primarily for young adult couples; however, variations of these programs have been developed for couples marrying for the second time, for those marrying during later years, and for those in committed relationships other than marriage. Because premarital education is based on a companionate view of marriage, these programs may not be relevant to all cultural or religious groups.
Websites on the Internet can help to disseminate program information to interested persons throughout the world.