In the 8th century BC, India could be broadly understood in terms of five large regions viz. Madhyadesa (the middle country), Pratichya (western lands), Prachya. By the 6th century B.C. there were approximately 22 different Janapadas. The key points related to the Janapadas and the Mahajanapadas are. PDF | On Jan 1, , Karam Tej Sarao and others published Janapadas, Mahājanapadas, Kingdoms, and Republics.

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Conjectural reconstruction of the main gate nanapadas Kusinagara, city of the Mallas, circa BCE adapted from a relief at Sanchi. Vayu Purana attests that Kuruson of Samvarsana of the Puru lineage, was the eponymous ancestor janapaads the Kurus and the founder of Kururashtra Kuru Janapada in Kurukshetra. Indian nationalist historians such as K. Gandhara was located on the grand northern high road Uttarapatha and was a centre of international commercial activities.

State and Government in Ancient India. The other names for the city were Magadhapura, Brihadrathapura, Vasumati, Kushagrapura mahajanapadsa Bimbisarapuri. Ancient India, from the earliest times to the first century, A.

The alluvial plains of this region and its proximity to the copper and iron rich areas of Bihar and Jharkhand helped the kingdom to develop good quality weapons and support the agrarian economy.

Janapadas and Mahajanapadas

There was, however, a struggle for supremacy between king Pasenadi Prasenajit and king Ajatashatru of Magadha which was finally settled once the confederation of Lichchavis became aligned with Magadha. Taksashila and Pushkalavatithe two cities of this Mahajanapada, are said to have been named after Taksa and Pushkara, the two sons of Bharataa prince of Ayodhya.


They do not give any connected history except in the case of Magadha. It was the most important entreport of goods and passengers from the north-west and south. They are called Vasishthas Vasetthas in the Mahapparnibbana Suttanta. The country of Assaka lay outside the pale of Madhyadesa.

There were also two other political bodies: Misra theorizes that these smaller janas were conquered by and assimilated into the larger janas. Chalcolithic — BC Anarta tradition.

In the mediaeval period, the southern frontiers of Chedi extended to the banks of the river Narmada. This model ultimately evolved into the establishment of political units known as the janapadas. The Mallas originally had a monarchical form of government but later they switched to one of Samgha republicthe members of which called themselves rajas. Very little was mentioned in the ancient Indian literature about the kingdoms to the North, beyond the Himalayas.

16 Mahajanapada and their capitals – General Knowledge Today

Similarly, there were some tribes in the eastern regions of India considered to be in this category. Chalukya Dynastyc. These latter Kambojas are associated with the Daradas janapaddas Gandharas in Indian literature and also find mention in the Edicts of Ashoka. According to the political scientist Sudama Misra, the name of the Panchala janapada suggests that it was a fusion of five pancha janas.

A military campaign and tribute collection was often associated with a great sacrifice like Rajasuya or Ashvamedha conducted in the kingdom of the campaigning king. Early modern period — Mughal Empire. Periods of Sri Lanka Prehistory. The Vedas mention five sub-divisions of ancient India: The country was divided into Uttara-Panchala and Dakshina-Panchala.

In ancient literature, the Kamboja is variously associated with the GandharaDarada and the Bahlika Bactria. Ancient Kamboja is known to have comprised regions on either side of the Hindukush. New kingdoms were formed when a major clan produced more than one King in a generation. Its location at the centre of the highways of trade of those days contributed to its wealth. The first reference to the Angas is found in the Atharva-Veda where they find mention along with the MagadhasGandharis and the Mujavats, apparently as a despised people.


The Chedis were an ancient people of India and are mentioned in the Rigvedawith their king Kashu Chaidya. The river Godavari separated the country of the Assakas from that of the Mulakas or Alakas.

Mahajanapadas – Wikipedia

From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. The Kambojans and Gandharans, however, never came into direct contact with the Magadhan state until Chandragupta and Kautiliya arose on the scene. The Vrishnis, Andhakas and other allied tribes of the Yadavas formed a sangha and Vasudeva Krishna is described as the sangha-mukhya. Sometimes, large forests, which were larger than the kingdoms themselves, formed their boundaries as was the case of Naimisha Forestthe NaimishaAranyam between Panchala and Kosala kingdoms.

The original Kamboja was located in eastern Oxus country as neighbor to Bahlika, but with time, some clans of the Kambojas appear to have crossed the Hindukush and planted colonies on its southern side also.

Though a well known monarchical people in the janapxdas period, the Kurus are known to have switched to a republican form of government during the 6th to 5th centuries BCE.