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The transformation of an organization into an institution signifies society's total acceptance of that new organization. The income tax office is an example of an organization that is actively maintained by the enactment of laws and the formation of an office for procuring taxes. Without active governmental support, this organization would disappear, as it does not enjoy universal public support. On the other hand, the institution of marriage is universally accepted, and would persist even if governments withdrew regulations that demand registration of marriage and impose age restrictions.
The institution of marriage is sustained by the weight of tradition, not by government agencies and legal enactments. Cultural transmission by the family[ edit ] Families play a major role in the propagation of new activities once they win the support of the society. A family is a miniature version of the larger society—acceptance by the larger entity is reflected in the smaller entity. The family educates the younger generation and transmits social values like self-restraint, responsibility, skills, and occupational training.
Though children do not follow their parents' footsteps as much as they once did, parents still mold their children's attitudes and thoughts regarding careers and future occupations. When families propagate a new activity, it signals that the new activity has become an integral part of the society. Education[ edit ] One of the most powerful means of propagating and sustaining new developments is the educational system in a society. Education transmits society's collective knowledge from one generation to the next.
It equips each new generation to face future opportunities and challenges with knowledge gathered from the past. It shows the young generation the opportunities ahead for them, and thereby raises their aspiration to achieve more. Information imparted by education raises the level of expectations of youth, as well as aspirations for higher income. It also equips youth with the mental capacity to devise ways and means to improve productivity and enhance living standards.
Society can be conceived as a complex fabric that consists of interrelated activities, systems, and organizations. That organizational improvement can take place simultaneously in several dimensions. Quantitative expansion in the volume of social activities Qualitative expansion in the content of all those elements that make up the social fabric Geographic extension of the social fabric to bring more of the population under the cover of that fabric Integration of existing and new organizations so the social fabric functions more efficiently Such organizational innovations occur all the time, as a continuous process.
New organizations emerge whenever a new developmental stage is reached, and old organizations are modified to suit new developmental requirements. The impact of these new organizations may be powerful enough to make people believe they are powerful in their own right—but it is society that creates the new organizations required to achieve its objectives.
Increasing awareness leads to greater aspiration, which releases greater energy that helps bring about greater accomplishment. Resources can be divided into four major categories: Land, water, mineral and oil, etc.
Social resources consist of society's capacity to manage and direct complex systems and activities.
Knowledge, information and technology are mental resources. The energy, skill and capacities of people constitute human resources. The science of economics is much concerned with scarcity of resources. Though physical resources are limited, social, mental, and human resources are not subject to inherent limits. Even if these appear limited, there is no fixity about the limitation, and these resources continue to expand over time.
That expansion can be accelerated by the use of appropriate strategies. In recent decades the rate of growth of these three resources has accelerated dramatically. Correspondingly, the role of non-material resources increases as development advances. One of the most important non-material resources is information, which has become a key input. Information is a non-material resource that is not exhausted by distribution or sharing. Greater access to information helps increase the pace of its development.
Ready access to information about economic factors helps investors transfer capital to sectors and areas where it fetches a higher return.
- Social development theory
Greater input of non-material resources helps explain the rising productivity of societies in spite of a limited physical resource base.
Moreover, technology shows it is possible to reduce the amount of physical inputs in a wide range of activities. Scientific agricultural methods demonstrated that soil productivity could be raised through synthetic fertilizers. Dutch farm scientists have demonstrated that a minimal water consumption of 1. These examples show that the greater input of higher non-material resources can raise the productivity of physical resources and thereby extend their limits.
When it applies itself to society it can come up with new organizations. When it turns to the study of nature, it discovers nature's laws and mechanisms. When it applies itself to technology, it makes new discoveries and practical inventions that boost productivity. Technical creativity has had an erratic course through history, with some intense periods of creative output followed by some dull and inactive periods.
However, the period since has been marked by an intense burst of technological creativity that is multiplying human capacities exponentially.
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Political freedom and liberation from religious dogma had a powerful impact on creative thinking during the Age of Enlightenment. Dogmas and superstitions greatly restricted mental creativity. For example, when the astronomer Copernicus proposed a heliocentric view of the world, the church rejected it[ citation needed ] because it did not conform to established religious doctrine.
When Galileo used a telescope to view the planets, the church condemned the device as an instrument of the devil, as it seemed so unusual. The Enlightenment shattered such obscurantist fetters on freedom of thought. From then on, the spirit of experimentation thrived. Though technological inventions have increased the pace of development, the tendency to view developmental accomplishments as mainly powered by technology misses the bigger picture.Issues in Consultant-Client Relationships
Technological innovation was spurred by general advances in the social organization of knowledge. In the Middle Agesefforts at scientific progress were few, mainly because there was no effective system to preserve and disseminate knowledge.
Since there was no organized protection for patent rights, scientists and inventors were secretive about observations and discoveries. Establishment of scientific associations and scientific journals spurred the exchange of knowledge and created a written record for posterity. Nobel laureate economist Arthur Lewis observed that the mechanization of factory production in England—the Industrial Revolution —was a direct result of the reorganization of English agriculture.
Enclosure of common lands in England generated surplus income for farmers. That extra income generated additional raw materials for industrial processing, and produced greater demand for industrial products that traditional manufacturing processes could not meet.
Factory production increased many times when production was reorganized to use steam energy, combined with moving assembly lines, specialization, and division of labor. Thus, technological development was both a result of and a contributing factor to the overall development of society.
They build on past accomplishments in an incremental manner, and give a conscious form to the unconscious knowledge that society gathers over time. As pioneers are more conscious than the surrounding community, their inventions normally meet with initial resistance, which recedes over time as their inventions gain wider acceptance.
If opposition is stronger than the pioneer, then the introduction of an invention gets delayed. When Denis Papin demonstrated his steam engineGerman naval authorities refused to accept it, fearing it would lead to increased unemployment. John Kaywho developed a flying shuttle textile loom, was physically threatened by English weavers who feared the loss of their jobs.
He fled to France where his invention was more favorably received. The widespread use of computers and application of biotechnology raises similar resistance among the public today.
Regardless of the response, technological inventions occurs as part of overall social development, not as an isolated field of activity. Humanity relied more on muscle-power than thought-power to accomplish work.
That is no longer the case. Today, mental resources are the primary determinant of development. Where people drove a simple bullock cart, they now design ships and aircraft that carry huge loads across immense distances. Humanity has tamed rivers, cleared jungles and even turned arid desert lands into cultivable lands through irrigation.
Since there is no inherent limit to the expansion of society's mental resources, the notion of limits to growth cannot be ultimately binding.
All three are present in any society at time. One of them is predominant while the other two play subordinate roles. The term 'vital' denotes the emotional and nervous energies that empower society's drive towards accomplishment and express most directly in the interactions between human beings.
Before the full development of mind, it is these vital energies that predominate in human personality and gradually yield the ground as the mental element becomes stronger. The speed and circumstances of social transition from one stage to another varies. People follow tradition strictly and there is little innovation and change. Land is the main asset and productive resource during the physical stage and wealth is measured by the size of land holdings.
This is the agrarian and feudal phase of society. Inherited wealth and position rule the roost and there is very little upward mobility. Feudal lords and military chiefs function as the leaders of the society. Commerce and money play a relatively minor role.
As innovative thinking and experimental approaches are discouraged, people follow tradition unwaveringly and show little inclination to think outside of established guidelines. Occupational skills are passed down from parent to child by a long process of apprenticeship.
Guilds restrict the dissemination of trade secrets and technical knowledge.
The Church controls the spread of new knowledge and tries to smother new ideas that does not agree with established dogmas. The physical stage comes to an end when the reorganization of agriculture gives scope for commerce and industry to expand.
This happened in Europe during the 18th century when political revolutions abolished feudalism and the Industrial Revolution gave a boost to factory production.
The shift to the vital and mental stages helps to break the bonds of tradition and inject new dynamism in social life. The vital activities of society expand markedly. Society becomes curious, innovative and adventurous.
Social development theory - Wikipedia
During the vital stage emphasis shifts from interactions with the physical environment to social interactions between people. Trade supplants agriculture as the principal source of wealth. Equally important, society at this time began to more effectively harness the power of money. Commerce took over from agriculture, and money replaced land as the most productive resource.
The center of power shifted from the aristocracy to the business class, which employed the growing power of money to gain political influence. Many people living in those neighborhoods are what is called a-people.
Often those neighbourhoods were founded out of best intentions. Many districts that later became problem neighbourhoods were founded in the s and s when the State wanted to provide better housing for poorer persons.
Big tenement buildings were built. The first tenants mostly were two-parent-families, not those one kind with at least one parent working and many were happy with their neighbourhoods. But when the unemployment rate started climbing more and more people were losing their jobs.
In the s radical leftist terrorist organisations like the Red Army Faction engaged in a string of assassinations and kidnappings against political and business figures. Germany has also continued to struggle with far-right violence or neo-Nazis which are presently on a rise, in line with the younger generation of Germans growing older. The number of officially recognized violent hate crimes has risen from to According to a recent study a majority Jews living in Germany are worried about a rise in antisemitism.
Precarity and poverty[ edit ] There is a certain fragility of income and social position in France. There are several ways to measure this.
One possibility is to look at unemployment. Inside the European Union, in MayFrance was ranked 6th country with its unemployment rate of 9. Gender inequality[ edit ] Women suffer from economical and social problems in France.