Corporate Responsibility and Ethics
branches and subsidiaries, must follow these ethical standards regardless of their maintaining fair, legal, and long-term relationships with its venders/ suppliers and specifications, circuit layouts, circuit diagrams, mechanical drawings, flow. COMSOL is committed to conducting business in an honest and ethical manner. which COMSOL has a direct business relationship adhere to applicable laws and other forms of corruption are the responsibility of all those working for us or. Information Systems for Business and Beyond. 12 Chapter The Ethical and Legal Implications of Information Systems . amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole;; The effect of . circuit designs in semiconductors;; prescription drug formulas;; firearms;; locks;; plumbing;.
Ethical Business Conduct The prevention, detection and reporting of bribery and other forms of corruption are the responsibility of all those working for us or under our control. Workers will uphold all laws relevant to countering bribery and corruption in all the jurisdictions in which they operate, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act in the US and the Bribery Act in the UK.
Workers are prohibited from offering, promising, giving or accepting any financial or other advantage, to induce the recipient or any other person to act improperly in the performance of their functions, or to reward them for acting improperly, or where the recipient would act improperly by accepting the advantage.
All transactions shall be recorded in relevant financial records in a transparent and correct manner. Documentation for transactions shall be in a transparent and correct manner for the appropriate period required for such transactions, as guided by common practices and regulations.
No transaction or decision to commit resources shall be approved by any person having a conflict of interest regarding such transaction or decision. All Workers are expected and encouraged to report transactions or decisions suspected to be in violation of this Code of Conduct. Labor Practices COMSOL is committed to complying with applicable laws and regulations related to labor practices both in its own organization as well as in those with which it does business.
Workers agree not to use or purchase supplies or materials that are produced using any illegal form of forced labor, including human trafficking. Workers shall comply with local laws regarding child labor and minimum working age laws and requirements. Innovators with great ideas will be more likely to pursue those ideas if they have a clear understanding of how they will benefit.
In the US Constitution, Article 8, Section 8, the authors saw fit to recognize the importance of protecting creative works: Congress shall have the power. To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.
While protecting intellectual property is important because of the incentives it provides, it is also necessary to limit the amount of benefit that can be received and allow the results of ideas to become part of the public domain. Outside of the US, intellectual property protections vary. In the following sections we will review three of the best-known intellectual property protections: Under the terms of copyright, the author of a work controls what can be done with the work, including: Who can make copies of the work.
Who can make derivative works from the original work. Who can perform the work publicly.
Who can display the work publicly. Who can distribute the work. Many times, a work is not owned by an individual but is instead owned by a publisher with whom the original author has an agreement.
In return for the rights to the work, the publisher will market and distribute the work and then pay the original author a portion of the proceeds. Copyright protection lasts for the life of the original author plus seventy years. In the case of a copyrighted work owned by a publisher or another third party, the protection lasts for ninety-five years from the original creation date.
For works created beforethe protections vary slightly. Obtaining Copyright Protection In the United States, a copyright is obtained by the simple act of creating the original work.
In other words, when an author writes down that song, makes that film, or designs that program, he or she automatically has the copyright. However, for a work that will be used commercially, it is advisable to register for a copyright with the US Copyright Office. A registered copyright is needed in order to bring legal action against someone who has used a work without permission.
First Sale Doctrine If an artist creates a painting and sells it to a collector who then, for whatever reason, proceeds to destroy it, does the original artist have any recourse? What if the collector, instead of destroying it, begins making copies of it and sells them?
The first sale doctrine is a part of copyright law that addresses this, as shown below : The first sale doctrine, codified at 17 U. So, in our examples, the copyright owner has no recourse if the collector destroys her artwork. But the collector does not have the right to make copies of the artwork. Fair Use Another important provision within copyright law is that of fair use. Fair use is a limitation on copyright law that allows for the use of protected works without prior authorization in specific cases.
Ethics and Public Relations | Institute for Public Relations
For example, if a teacher wanted to discuss a current event in her class, she could pass out copies of a copyrighted news story to her students without first getting permission. Fair use is also what allows a student to quote a small portion of a copyrighted work in a research paper. Unfortunately, the specific guidelines for what is considered fair use and what constitutes copyright violation are not well defined. Fair use is a well-known and respected concept and will only be challenged when copyright holders feel that the integrity or market value of their work is being threatened.
The following four factors are considered when determining if something constitutes fair use: If you are ever considering using a copyrighted work as part of something you are creating, you may be able to do so under fair use. However, it is always best to check with the copyright owner to be sure you are staying within your rights and not infringing upon theirs. But it was not always this way. The first US copyright law, which only protected books, maps, and charts, provided protection for only 14 years with a renewable term of 14 years.
Over time, copyright law was revised to grant protections to other forms of creative expression, such as photography and motion pictures. Congress also saw fit to extend the length of the protections, as shown in the chart below. Today, copyright has become big business, with many businesses relying on the income from copyright-protected works for their income. Many now think that the protections last too long.
Because of this term extension, many works from the s and s that would have been available now in the public domain are not available. Evolution of copyright term length. Tom Bell The Digital Millennium Copyright Act As digital technologies have changed what it means to create, copy, and distribute media, a policy vacuum has been created.
The anti-circumvention provision makes it illegal to create technology to circumvent technology that has been put in place to protect a copyrighted work. This provision includes not just the creation of the technology but also the publishing of information that describes how to do it.
While this provision does allow for some exceptions, it has become quite controversial and has led to a movement to have it modified. This is the provision that allows YouTube, for example, not to be held liable when someone posts a clip from a copyrighted movie. YouTube Copyright Infringement Notification. Many think that the DMCA goes too far and ends up limiting our freedom of speech. For example, in discussing the anti-circumvention provision, the EFF states: Yet the DMCA has become a serious threat that jeopardizes fair use, impedes competition and innovation, chills free expression and scientific research, and interferes with computer intrusion laws.
If you circumvent DRM [digital rights management] locks for non-infringing fair uses or create the tools to do so you might be on the receiving end of a lawsuit. Creative Commons In chapter 2, we learned about open-source software. Open-source software has few or no copyright restrictions; the creators of the software publish their code and make their software available for others to use and distribute for free.
This is great for software, but what about other forms of copyrighted works? If an artist or writer wants to make their works available, how can they go about doing so while still protecting the integrity of their work?
Creative Commons is the solution to this problem. Creative Commons is a nonprofit organization that provides legal tools for artists and authors. Creative Commons licenses are indicated with the symbol. It is important to note that Creative Commons and public domain are not the same. When something is in the public domain, it has absolutely no restrictions on its use or distribution. Works whose copyrights have expired, for example, are in the public domain. By using a Creative Commons license, authors can control the use of their work while still making it widely accessible.
By attaching a Creative Commons license to their work, a legally binding license is created. Here are some examples of these licenses: This is the least restrictive license.