George W. Bush - Wikipedia
His State of the Union address requesting Congress a status referendum for the island. For the next two-term president it was even worse. Last November, Bush lost majorities in both houses of Congress, and now for the first time must Mary and David Boies Senior Fellow in U.S. Foreign Policy - Council on Foreign Relations . There is a convincing case to be made that George H.W. Bush was one of and handed it over to President Bill Clinton, who secured congressional Bush's singular achievement was in creating a relationship of trust with.
After the sale of his company, Bush spent 18 months in Washington, D. Following the election inhe moved to Dallas, where he and a former business partner organized a group of investors to purchase the Texas Rangers professional baseball team.
Bush left and his father, George H. Bush, walking on the South Lawn at the White House, An investigation by the Securities and Exchange Commission SEC in into the possibility of illegal insider trading trading that takes advantage of information not available to the public did not uncover any wrongdoing.
Bush won the election with 53 percent of the vote compared with 46 percent for Richardsthus becoming the first child of a U. His administration increased the number of crimes for which juveniles could be sentenced to adult prisons following custody in juvenile detention and lowered to 14 the age at which children could be tried as adults. Throughout his tenure Bush received international attention for the brisk use of capital punishment in Texas relative to other states.
Bush centre being sworn in as governor of Texas, January 17, Bush and his wife, Laura, walking under an arch of swords to celebrate his reelection as governor of Texas, His running mate was Dick Cheneyformer chief of staff for Pres.
Bush at a campaign rally in Melbourne, Florida, On election day the presidency hinged on the 25 electoral votes of Floridawhere Bush led Gore by fewer than 1, popular votes after a mandatory statewide machine recount.
After the Gore campaign asked for manual recounts in four heavily Democratic counties, the Bush campaign filed suit in federal court to stop them. For five weeks the election remained unresolved as Florida state courts and federal courts heard numerous legal challenges by both campaigns. The Bush campaign quickly filed an appeal with the U. Supreme Courtasking it to delay the recounts until it could hear the case; a stay was issued by the court on December 9.
By winning Florida, Bush narrowly won the electoral vote over Gore by to —only 1 more than the required one Gore elector abstained. Bush, January 20,Washington, D. Presidency Early initiatives Bush was the first Republican president to enjoy a majority in both houses of Congress since Dwight D. Eisenhower in the s. In the same month, however, control of the Senate formally passed to the Democrats after Republican Sen.
James Jeffords left his party to become an independent. Bush sitting at his desk in the Oval Office, with his father, George H. Bush, looking on, Dick Cheney, called for increasing the production of fossil fuels and nuclear power in the country by opening more federal lands to mining and oil and gas exploration, extending tax credits and other subsidies to energy companies, and easing environmental regulations. In July a coalition of nonprofit organizations filed suit to make public the secret deliberations of the task force and the identities of the groups it met with.
Iraq strategy: Bush vs. Congress
In foreign affairs, the Bush administration announced that the United States would not abide by the Kyoto Protocol on reducing the emission of gases responsible for global warmingwhich the United States had signed in the last days of the Bill Clinton administration, because the agreement did not impose emission limits on developing countries and because it could harm the U.
The administration also withdrew from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and attempted to secure commitments from various governments not to extradite U. The September 11 attacks On September 11,Bush faced a crisis that would transform his presidency. That morning, four American commercial airplanes were hijacked by Islamist terrorists. Two of the planes were deliberately crashed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York Citydestroying both towers and collapsing or damaging many surrounding buildings, and a third was used to destroy part of the Pentagon building outside Washington, D.
The crashes—the worst terrorist incident on U. Hijacked airliner approaching the south tower of the World Trade Center. Bush in Sarasota, Florida, being notified of multiple terrorist attacks on September 11, September 11 attacksGeorge W. Bush seated talking on the phone as advisers watch a television report about the World Trade Center, at Emma E.
Booker Elementary School in Sarasota, Florida, September 11, ; Bush was visiting the school at the time of the attacks. Eric Draper—White House photo U.
Bush conferring with his chief of staff aboard Air Force One, September 11, Bush on September 20,addressing a joint session of Congress following the September 11 attacks. After assembling an international military coalition, Bush ordered a massive bombing campaign against Afghanistan, which began on October 7, Bush on Air Force One, Sept.
Bush addressing the country from the Oval Office on September 11, Bush addressing a crowd as he stands on rubble at the World Trade Center site in New York City three days after the September 11 attacks of Subsequent efforts in Congress to provide a legal basis for the spying became mired in debate over whether telecommunications companies that cooperated with the NSA should be granted retroactive immunity against numerous civil lawsuits.
Bush delivering the State of the Union address to Congress, January 29, Eventually hundreds of prisoners were held at the facility without charge and without the legal means to challenge their detentions see habeas corpus. The administration argued that it was not obliged to grant basic constitutional protections to the prisoners, because the base was outside U.
Department of Defense The leak of the report came just two months after the publication of photographs of abusive treatment of prisoners by American soldiers at the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq see below Iraq War.
Supreme Courtin Hamdan v. Later that year, Congress passed the Military Commissions Actwhich gave the commissions the express statutory basis that the court had found lacking; the law also prevented enemy combatants who were not American citizens from challenging their detention in the federal courts.
In separate programs run by the Central Intelligence Agency CIAdozens of individuals suspected of involvement in terrorism were abducted outside the United States and held in secret prisons in eastern Europe and elsewhere or transferred for interrogation to countries that routinely practiced torture. After the memo was leaked to the press in Junethe Justice Department rescinded its opinion.
Inhowever, the department issued new secret memos declaring the legality of enhanced interrogation techniques, including waterboarding. The new memos were revealed in news reports inprompting outrage from critics of the administration. In July Bush issued an executive order that prohibited the CIA from using torture or acts of cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment, though the specific interrogation techniques it was allowed to use remained classified. In March Bush vetoed a bill directed specifically at the CIA that would have prevented the agency from using any interrogation technique, such as waterboarding, that was not included in the U.
At the same time, Bush and other high administration officials began to draw worldwide attention to Iraqi Pres. In November the Bush administration successfully lobbied for a new Security Council resolution providing for the return of weapons inspectors to Iraq.
Soon afterward Bush declared that Iraq had failed to comply fully with the new resolution and that the country continued to possess weapons of mass destruction. For several weeks, the United States and Britain tried to secure support from other Security Council members for a second resolution explicitly authorizing the use of force against Iraq though administration officials insisted that earlier resolutions provided sufficient legal justification for military action.
In response, France and Russia, while agreeing that Iraq had failed to cooperate fully with weapons inspectors, argued that the inspections regime should be continued and strengthened. In his State of the Union address in JanuaryBush announced that Iraq had attempted to purchase enriched uranium from Niger for use in nuclear weapons.
Meanwhile, massive peace demonstrations took place in several major cities around the world. In the ground phase of the Iraq WarU.
The President and Congress - History Learning Site
Iraq WarExplosions illuminating the skies of Baghdad during the U. Bush greeting members of the U. AP Occupation and insurgency Although the Bush administration had planned for a short war, stabilizing the country after the invasion proved difficult.
From May 1, when Bush declared an end to major combat in Iraq, to the end of Decembermore than U. During the next four years the number of U. The number of Iraqis who died during the invasion and insurgency is uncertain. Widespread sectarian violence, accompanied by regular and increasingly deadly attacks on military, police, and civilian targets by militias and terrorist organizations, made large parts of the country virtually ungovernable.
The increasing numbers of U. If a president does not sign what is presented to him, then that legislation in its current form does not become law. For the first two years of his presidency, Clinton did not use the power of presidential veto but both Houses had a Democratic majority.
Iraq strategy: Bush vs. Congress - politics | NBC News
However, when Congress became dominated by Republicans in years 3 to 4 of his first term in office, he did use the veto. Inhe vetoed the Republicans fiscal year budget which wanted reductions in spending in Medicare, welfare, education and environmental programmes. The president can publicly and privately express his views though Congress does not have to support them. In this sense the Constitution is seen to be put into action in that the president has the right to express a view while those elected by the people have the right to reject them.
Though Congress has the right to reject presidential recommendations, it rarely does so or it does so in a manner that frequently just dilutes a recommendation as opposed to outwardly rejecting it.
Both parts of government have to be seen working together for the people as opposed to setting one another up against the other. However, it is through the power of recommendationagenda setting and lobbying that all modern presidents have organised their relationship with Congress.
Today, people on the presidential staff are assigned by the president simply to develop and cultivate his relationship with Congress. These people essentially have four main tasks: These people will tell a president when it is most advantageous to do something i. These people identify obstacles to a recommendation and seek to suggest ways in which they can be navigated around. They also do their utmost to do what their political allies want them to do.
This is almost an impossible task because the administration is so large at the Executive level and it is also difficult because individuals frequently pursue their own interests.
It is also an important task because individuals within the administration can do great harm to a president when they embark on their own individual agenda. As government has got bigger, so the problem this issue raises has got more difficult to solve. Successful presidents have to master the ability to persuade. The Constitution separated the Executive and Legislative branches of government and therefore the president has no power over Congress. Hence he has to negotiate and bargain.
No-one in the presidential staff is a member of the Legislative — nor are any of his political appointments within the Federal bureaucracy. Congress does not even have to physically respond to any presidential recommendation as they can pretend that it does not exist. Therefore a president has to rely on developing good relations with Congress, good tactics, good powers of persuasion and bargaining in order to win support.
A Republican president with a Democrat dominated Congress, faces obvious party loyalty and partisan issues. The opposite is also true. Even a Democrat president with a Democrat dominated Congress cannot guarantee their support as they are essentially regional representatives who stand or fall by the votes of those they represent — and a presidential recommendation might not be popular with rural people, as an example.
However, the politics of divided party control has frequently lead to president and Congress working together through this system of bargaining. If they did not, there would be a stand-still in American politics.
Historically, Republican presidents have always had more success in dealing with a Democrat dominated Congress than a Democrat president with a Republican dominated Congress. For six out of his eight years, Reagan had to work with a divided Congress and yet he is considered a very successful president in terms of his legislation.
Any politician who failed to support this could be seen as being easy on communism when the Cold War was certainly around and the fear of the old USSR was real.
Democrat presidents have had real problems with Democrat dominated Congress.