Determinar la prevalencia de la infección por Ehrlichia canis y Anaplasma sp. y su correlación con aspectos epidemiológicos y de laboratorio. Anaplasmosis is a disease caused by a rickettsial parasite of ruminants, Anaplasma spp. The microorganisms are Gram-negative, and infect red blood cells. El propósito del presente estudio fue describir la evolución clínica y las consecuencias de la Anaplasmosis Granulocítica Canina en perros de la provincia de.

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A controlled clinical trial was carried out on 14 dogs referred and diagnosed as Canine Granulocyctic Anaplasmosis within Snap 4dx test.

Relevant haematological data were recorded before day 0 and after treatment day 30 in both groups. Doxycycline treatment hasten resolution of clinical signs in all dogs in about 2 to 7 days. It may suggest that in conjunction with doxycycline chloroquine may have helped to speed up relevant clinical signs of CGA.

Anaplasmosis, Canine, chloroquine, doxycycline, granulocyctic Source: Anaplasmosis, canino, doxycycline, chloroquine, granulocyctico Fuente: The canine vector-borne infectious diseases are emerging problems in veterinary medicine, besides the zoonotic potential of the latter causative agents may carry of importance for human health 1.

The vector-borne canine diseases, especially human granulocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum A. Ticks are well recognized as the main method of transmission of anaplasmozis HE. Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a well recognized agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, possessing influence on neutrophils and rarely eosinophils 2. Many laboratories perform serological testing for IgG antibodies by using indirect immunofluorescent antibody techniques IFAT.

Regarding human granulocytic anaplasmosis, diagnosis rely upon relevant clinical signs and laboratory analysis as follows; i microscobic morulae observation among neutrophils on satined blood smears along with antibody titer positivity against A.

Aforementioned criteria may also be adapted to dogs, apart from microbiological isolation 2, Indeed further research are warranted in an attempt to investigate any adjuvant or combined therapy alternatives for better releiving the anaplasmois and clinical signs. The present study was enrolled among 14 dogs referred to the Small Animal Clinics at the Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary, Adnan Menderes University and privately owned small animal clinics in Aydin province between March February.

All diseased dogs, referred with histories of at least one of the clinical signs involving fever, anorexia, weight loss, aanplasmosis, generalized lymphadenopathy, arthropathy, muscle weakness, perrls and distal limb edema were evaluated using a canine point-of-care ELISA kit anaplwsmosis diagnosis of naturally occuring vector borne diseases SNAP 4Dx, Perroz Laboratories, USA.

Laboratory analyses Haematological analysis. Blood samples were withdrawn from vena cephalica antebrachii into anticoagulated EDTA tubes. Complete blood counts were performed on referral within Abacus Junior Vet hematology analyzer.

This assay detects antibodies reacting to immunodominant protein msp2 of A. Only dogs naturally and mono-infected with A. The test results were recorded in an Excel spreadsheet.

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Anaplasmosis – Wikipedia

Fourteen dogs with a diagnosis of CGA were randomly enrolled into 2 groups. Treatment in both groups involved peroral administration. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U inter-group comparison and the Wilcoxon test intra-group comparison procedures. Treatment in both groups resulted in rapid resolution of clinical signs in all dogs in about 2 to 7 days. Although not significant and statistically not important data not shown dogs enrolled in group I, that were dual treated, presented a more rapid clinical cure.

Treatment in both groups resulted with clinical remission regarding aforementioned clinical signs.

On day 30 no fever was evident in treated dogs. Spontaneous and gradual regression of enlarged lymp nodes occurred in 4 to 12 days in both groups. Finnaly on day 30 all dogs presented complete clinical recovery. Analysis for relevant hematological variables.

In an attempt to make precise diagnostic tests for CGA microscopic detection of specific morulae, anti-Anaplasma IgM and IgG antibody detection and PCR analysis, which is most reliable for early diagnosis 8. Recent exposure to A. IgG class antibodies primarily are detectable following 8 days after first exposure, corresponding to 2—5 days after morulae presence.

Molecular detection of Anaplasma species in dogs in Colombia

It is therefore may be suggested that antibody detection may not be possible during acute infection 7. Seronegative dogs could probably have been recently infected; indeed a seropositive case could have been exposed to the etiological agent preceeding months, in association with elimination of infection thorugh immunity Polymerase chain reaction PCR assays can be used to detect organism-specific DNA sequences anaplamosis the blood during the early stages Therefore, the present authors may suggest that seropositive dogs obtained in the present study may have been infected weeks to months earlier, similar to previous description 9.

The major flaw in the present research was that serological or molecular testing results at the time of diagnosis was not available, other than Snap 4 Dx tests.

The aforementioned Snap 4 Dx test platform determines antibodies directed against a synthetic A.

During acute infection with vector-borne organisms, involving Anaplasma species, clinical signs may be evident before the dog has a measureable antibody response From another point of view clinical signs usually present 1 or 2 weeks following tick transmission of Anaplasmosis, indeed. The vast majority of exposed dogs may not develop overt clinical disease. Thus therapy applications might not solely based on antibody testing, even if the results are negative or positive In a recent prospective study in which the present author K.

The latter authors 13 also claimed that treatment fn doxycycline may probably alleviate the systemic effects of the tumor necrosis factor alpha, a cytokine that plays a role in the pathogenesis of acute canine ehrlichiosis, by reducing anaaplasmosis eliminating parasitemia load Furthermore chloroquine may have possessed anti-inflammatory effects 15, 16 and may have helped lowering the proinflammatory cytokines, or may be of beneficial for reducing infection of microbiological agents The dog recovered perroos treatment with tetracycline mg, PO, q8h for 14 d Another case from Czech Republic, an months-old male Golden Retriever developed the acute onset of fever, lameness, inappetence, depression, ataxia and reluctance to move, was diagnosed anaplasmisis Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection.

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Chloroquine is a 4-aminoquinoline derivative possessing antimalarial activity for treatment and prevention 20, It has advantages due to its safety and effective usage, with a reasonable price peeros economic significance 20, Chloroquine might be safe therapy option for anti-inflammatory diseases.

Although in the present study immunological parameters were not analyzed, chloroquine might have helped for a faster clinical remission in eh with doxycycline, as reported previously Regardless of the interpretation, it must be kept in mind that Anaplasmosis may affect each dog differently, so alternative therapy protocols, as shown in this study, might aid clinicians for dissolving related clinical signs resulting in better animal welfare. Spatial distribution of seroprevalence for Anaplasma phagocytophilumBorrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Dirofilaria immitis in dogs in Washington, Oregon, and California.

Vet Clin Pathol ; 40 3: Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales: Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ;5: Bakken JS, Dumler S. Infect Dis Clin N Am ; Clinical diagnosis and treatment of human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci ; Ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis, Part II: Arthropod borne Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. Manson Publishing, London; J Clin Microbiol ; J Vet Intern Med ; 23 6: Canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis due to Anaplasma phagocytophila.

Ehrlichiosis and related infections. J Am Vet Med Assoc ; Typical and atypical manifestations of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in dogs.

J Am Anim Anaplas,osis Assoc ; 47 6: Infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dogs in Germany.

Res Vet Sci ; Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in dogs: Acta Sci Vet ; 40 2: Ehrlichia canis Jaboticabal strain induces the expression of TNF-a in leukocytes and splenocytes of experimentally infected dogs.

Braz J Vet Parasitol ; 20 1: Chloroquine induces activation of nuclear factor kappa B and subsequent expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines by human astroglial cells. J Neurochem ; 84 6: Weber S, Levitz SM. Chloroquine antagonizes the proinflammatory cytokine response to oppurtunistic fungi by alkalizing the fungal phagolysosome. J Infect Dis ; 6: Chloroquine treatment influences proinflammatory cytokine levels in systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

Lupus ; 15 5: Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection granulocytic anaplasmosis in a dog from Vancouver Island.

Revista MVZ Córdoba

Can Vet J ; 46 9: Infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in a young dog: FEBS Lett ; Stepniewska K, White NJ. Pharmacokinetic determinants of the window of selection for antimalarial drug resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother ;